Report an error   

Submitted: 31 July 2018 Modified: 12 December 2018
HERDIN Record #: R07-USC-18073111033722

The antimutagenic activity of Labanos Raphanus sativus L. var. longipinnatus vegetable juice on male albino mice.

See More

Cancer is the third leading cause of mortality in the country and studies have shown that people who consume a diet high in fruits and vegetables reduce their task of cancer. Radish, a crucifer, has gained prominence in the field of cancer prevention because it contains many beneficial phytochemicals. Labanos, the Filipino radish, is an annual plant widely cultivated in the Philippines at all altitudes. In this study, Labanos is tested a functional food  and as a potent phytomedicine to prevent cancer by studying its antimutagenic activity. The antimutagenic activity of Labanos was examined through as in vivo micronucleus assay of the Labanos in treatment-free test juice form. The Micronucleus assay detects freshly-induced structural chromosomal damages in bone marrow cells and administration of the Labanos test juice is tested for the ability to lower the incidence of induced micronuclei which serve as the index for genetic damage. Mutation was induced through intraperitoneal administration Mitomycin C. The microncuclei  Labanos  juice was tested using four doses: 1000 mg (Group A), 500 mg (Group B), 250 mg (Group C), and 150 mg (Group D) doses per 20g body weight (BW). The untreated group (Group E) was not administered with the test juice while the negative control (Group F) was given water injection. The mice in Group A developed an average of 81 Micronucleated Polychromatic Erythrocytes (MPCEs) per 1000 Polychromatic Erythrocytes (PCEs) translating to a 69.99% reduction of MPCEs. As the dosage further decreased, there was a respective decrease in the percent reduction thus showing a linear, dose-dependent antimutagenic activity. This linear relationship is confirmed by a correlation coefficient of (+) 0.886. The one-way analysis of variance (p> 0.01) and post-hoc analysis showed that all variables have significant differences. The results suggest that the Labanos test juice is antimutagenic, with an ED50 (Median Effective Dose) of 510mg. Phytochemicals established to be natural antimutagenic agents are saponins and phenolics, both of which were found in the Labanos test juice in the phytochemical screening through the test tube method. The researchers recommend the characterization and quantitative analysis of total phenolic and saponnin content in Labanos.

Publication Type
Thesis Degree
Publication Date
March 2014
LocationLocation CodeAvailable FormatAvailability
University of San Carlos-Josef Baumgartner Learning Resource Center, Science and Technology Section T / Ec75g Fulltext Print Format (Ask the Information Officer)
1. Abbés, J , Abbés, S , Ouanes, Z , Wahhab, M , Bacha, H , Oueslati, R . "Isothiocyanate from the Tunisian Radish (Raphanus sativus) Prevents Genotoxicity of Zearalenone in Vivo and In Vitro" Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis 677(1-2): 59-65, 2009
2. Barillari, J , Cervellati, R , Costa, S , Guerra, M , Speroni, E , Utan, A , Iori, R . "Antioxidant and Choleretic Properties of Raphanus sativus L. Sprout (Kaiware Daikon) Extract." Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 54(26): 9773, 2006
3. Bell, M C, Crowley-Nowick, P , Bradlow, H L. "Placebo-controlled trial of indole-3 carbinol in the treatment of CIN" Gynecologic Oncology 78(2): 123-129, 2000
4. Bhattacharya, S . "Natural Antimutagens: A Review." Research Journal of Medicinal Plants 5, 116-126, 2011
5. Blazevic, J . "Glucosinolate Degradation Products and Other Bound and Free Volatiles in the Leaves and Roots of Radish (Raphanus sativus L.)" Food Chemistry 113(1): 96-102, 2009
6. Brown, P , Tokuhisa , J , Reichelt, M , Gershenzon, J . "Variation of Glucosinolate Accumulation among Different Organs and Development Stages Ofarabidopsis Thaliana" Phytochemistry 62(3): 471-481, 2003
7. Chow, W H, Schuman, L M, Mclaughlin, J K. "A cohort study of tobacco use, diet, occupation, and lung cancer mortality" Cancer Causes & Control 3(3): 247-254, 1992
8. De Mijia, E , Tostado, E , Pina, G . "Antimutagenic Effects of Natural Phenolic Compounds in Beans" Elseiver Science B. V. Mutation Research 441, 1-9, 1999
9. Elias, R , Meo, M D, Vidal-Ollivier, E , Laget, M , Balansard, G , Dumenil, G . "Antimutagenic activity of some saponins isolated from Calendula officinalis L., C. arvensis L. and Hedera helix L. Mutagenesis" 5(327-331): 1990
10. Epplein, M , Wilkens, L R, Tiirikainen, M . "Urinary isothiocyanates; glutathione S transferase M1, T1, and P1 polymorphisms; and risk of colorectal cancer; the Multiethnic Cohort Study" Cance Epidemiolgy, Biomarkers & Prevention 18(1): 314-320, 2009
11. Feskanich, D , Ziegler, R G, Michaud, D S. "Prospective study of fruit and vegetable consumption and risk of lung cancer among men and women" Journal of the National Cancer Institute 92(22): 1812-1823, 2000
12. Flood, A , Velie, E M, Chaterjee, N . "Fruit and vegetable intakes and the risk of colorectal cancer in the Bureau Cancer Detection Demonstration Project follow-up cohort" The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 75(5): 936-943, 2002
13. Force, L , O, T , Wong, L , Irving, D . "Impact of Cold Storage on Glucosinolate Levels in Seed-Sprouts of Broccoli, Rocket, White Radish and Kohl-Rabi" Postharvest Biology and Technology 44(2): 175-178, 2007
14. Giovannucci, E , Rimm, E B, Liu, Y , Stampfer, M J, Willett, W C. "A prospective study of cruciferous vegetables and prostate cancer" Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention 12(12): 1403-1409, 2003
15. Hanlon, P , Robbins, M , Hammon, L , Barnes, D . "Aqueous Extract From the Vegetative Portion of Spanish Black Radish (raphanus sativus L., var. Niger) Induces Detoxification Enzyme Expression in Hepg2 Cells" Journal of Functional Foods 1(4): 356-365, 2009
16. Hayes, J D, Kelleher, M O, Eggleston, I M. "The Cancer Chemopreventive Actions of Phytochemicals Derived From Glucosinolates" European Journal of Nutrition 47(2): 73-88, 2008
17. Hecht, S S. "Inhibition of Carcinogenesis by Isothiocyanates" Drug Metabolism Reviews 32(3-4): 395-411, 2000
18. Jain, M G, Hislop, G T, Howe, G R, Ghadirian, P . "Plant foods, antioxidants, and prostate cancer risk: findings from case-control studies in Canada" Nutrition and Cancer 34(2): 173-184, 1999
19. Jing, P , Zhao, S , Ruan, S , Xie, Z , Dong, Y , Yu, L . "Anthocyanin and Glucosinolate Occurrences in the Roots of Chinese Red Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and Their Stability to heat and pH " Food Chemistry 133(4): 1569-1576, 2012
20. Katsunari, I , Atsuko, T , Hidekazu, I , Hideki, H , Keiko, A . "Antioxidative Effects of Daikon Sprout (Raphanus sativus L.) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale roscoe) in Rats" Food Chemistry 102(1): 237-242, 2007
21. Key, T J, Allen, N , Appleby, P . "Fruits and vegetables and prostate cancer: no association among 1104 cases in a prospective study of 130544 men in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)" International Journal of Cancer 109(1): 119-124, 2004
22. Kolonel, L N, Hankin, J H, Whittemore, A S. "Vegetables, fruits, legumes and prospate cancer; a multiethnic case-control study. " Cancer Epidemiology 9(8): 795-804, 2000
23. Kuang, P , Song, D , Yuan, Q , Yi, R , Ly, X , Liang, H . "Separation and Purification of Sulforaphene from Radish Seeds using macroporous Resin and Preparative High-Performance Liquid Chromatography" Food Chemistry 136(2): 342-347, 2013
24. Lajmanovich, R , Cabagna, M , Peltzer, P , Stringhini, G , Attademo, A . "Micronucleus Induction in Erythrocytes of the Hyla Pulchella Tadpoles (Amphibia hylidae) Exposed to Insecticide Endosulfan" Mutation Research 587, 67-72, 2005
25. Lee, B H, Lee, S J, Hui, J H, Lee, S , Moon, C K. "In vitro antigenotoxic activity of novel ginseng saponin metabolites formed by intestinal bacteria" Planta Med. 64, 500-503, 1998
26. Lee, I P, Kim, Y H, Kang, M H, Roberts, C , Roh, J K. "Chemopreventive effect of green tea (Camellia sinensis) against cigarette smoke-induced mutations (SCE) in humans" J. Cell. Biochem 27, 68-75, 1997
27. London, S J, Yuan, J M, Chung, F L. "Isothiocyanates, glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 polymorphins, and lung-cancer risk: a prospective study of men in Shanghai, China" Lancet 356(9231): 724-729, 2000
28. Manchali, S , Murthy, K , Patil, B . "Crucial Facts about Health Benefits of Popular Cruciferous Vegetables" Journal of Functional Foods 4(1): 94-106, 2012
29. Matera, R , Gabbanini, S , De Nicola, G , Iori, R , Petrillo, G , Valgimigli, L . "Identification and Analysis of Isothiocyanates and New Acylated Anthocyanins in the Juice of Raphanus sativus Cv. Sango Sprouts" Food Chemistry 133(2): 563-572, 2012
30. McCullough, M L, Robertson, A S, Chao, A . "A prospective study of whole grains, fruits, vegetables and colon cancer risk" Cancer Causes & Control 14(10): 959-970, 2003
31. Michels, K B, Giovannucci, Edward , Joshipura, KJ . "Prospective study of fruit and vegetable consumption and incidence of colon and rectal cancers" Journal of the National Cancer Institute 92(21): 1740-1752, 2000
32. Muller, W U, Bocker, W , Streffer, C . "Image Processing Algorithms for the Automated Micronucleus Assay in Binucleated Human Lymphocytes" Cytometry 19(4): 283-294, 1995
33. Murillo, G , Mehta, R G. "Cruciferous Vegetables and cancer Prevention" Nutrition and Cancer 41(1-2): 17-28, 2001
34. Nakamura, Y , Iwahashi, T , Tanaka, A , Koutani, J , Matsuo, T , Okamoto, S , Sato, K , Ohtsuki, K . "4-(Methyldhio)-3-Butenyl Isothiocyanate, A Principal Antimutagen in Daikon (Raphanus Sativus; Japanese Radish)" Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49(12): 5755-5760, 2001
35. Neuhouser, M L, Patterson, R E, Thornquist, M D. "Fruits and vegetables are associated with lower lung cancer risk only in the placebo arm of the beta carotene and retinol efficacy trial (CARET)" Cancer Epidemology Biomarkers & Prevention 12(4): 350-358, 2003
36. O, T , Wong, L , Force, L , Williams, D , Gurung, C , Irving, D . "Glucosinolate Composition and Anti-Cancer Potential of Daikon and Radish Sprouts" Acta Horticulturae 765, 237-244, 2008
37. Ohe, T , Marutani, K , Nakase, S . "Catechins are not major components responsible for anti-genotoxic effects of tea extracts against nitroarenes." Mutat. Res. 496, 75-81, 2001
38. Phapale, R , Thakur, Seema . "Antioxidant Activity and Antimutagenic Effect of Phenolic Compounds in Feronia limonia L. Swingle Fruit" International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 2(4): 68-73, 2010
39. Pina, G , Kuzmicky, P , de Mejia, E , Kado, N , Hsieh, D . "Antimutagenicity of Ellagic Acid Against Aflatoxin B1 in the Salmonella Microsuspension Assay" Elsevier B. V. 360(1): 15-21, 1996
40. Shahrim, Z , Baharuddin, N , Yahya, N , Hussin , M , Bakar, R , Ismael, Z . "The in vivo Rodent Micronucleus Assay of Kacip Fatimah (Labisia pumila) Extract" Tropical Biomedicine 23(2): 214-219, 2006
41. Schuurman, A G, Goldbohm, R A, Dorant, E , van den Brandt, P A. "Vegetable and Fruit Consumption and Prostate Cancer Risk: A Cohort Study in the Netherlands" Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 7(8): 673-680, 1998
42. Smith-Warner, S A, Spiegelman, D , Yaun, S S. "Intake of fruits and vegetables and risk of breast cancer: a pooled analysis of cohort studies" 285(6): 769-776, 2001
43. Takaya, Y , Kondo, Y , Furukawa, T , Niwa, M . "Antioxidant Constituents of Radish Sprout (Kaiware-Daikon), Raphanus sativus L." Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 54(26): 9773-9778, 2006
44. Terry, P , Wolk, A , Persson, I . "Magnusson C. Brassica vegetables and breast cancer risk" JAMA 285(23): 2975-2977, 2001
45. Voorrips, L E, Goldbohm, R A, van Poppel , G . "Vegetable and fruit consumption and risks of colon and rectal cancer in a prospective cohort study: The Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer" American Journal of Epidemiology 152(11): 1081-1092, 2000
46. Voorrips, L E, Goldbohm, R A, Verhoeven, D T. "Vegetable and fruit consumption and lung cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer" Cancer Causes & Control 11(2): 101-115, 2000
47. Weisburger , J H, Hara, Y , Solan, l , Luo, F Q, Pittman, B , Zang, E . "Tea polyphenols as inhibitors of mutagenicity of major classes of carcinogens" Mutat. Res. 371, 57-63, 1996
48. Yang, G , Gao, Y T, Shu, X Q. "Isothiocyannate exposure, glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms, and colerectal cancer risk" American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 91(3): 704-711, 2010
49. Zhang, S , Hunter, D J, Forman, M R. "Dietary carotenoids and vitamins A, C, and E and risk of breast cancer" Journal of the National Cancer 91(6): 547-556, 1999
50. Kuzma, Jan W., Bohnenblust, Stephen E.. Basic Statistics for the Health Sciences New York: McGraw Hills, 175-184.
51. Elizabeth, H . (2008, November 30). Raphanus sativus L.. . Retrieved from:
52. (2009, November 30). Journal of Cytology and Histology. . Retrieved from:
53. (2011, November 30). What is Cancer. National Cancer Institute. . Retrieved from:
54. (2009, November 30). National Cancer Institute. . Retrieved from:
55. (1999, November 30). New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services. . Retrieved from: