Report an error   


Submitted: 23 May 2014 Modified: 11 October 2014
HERDIN Record #: R07-USC-14052311515725

Antibacterial and toxic activity of mangrove species Rhizophora stylosa (bakhaw), Avicennia marina (miapi) and sonneratia alba (pagatpat)


This study dealt with the determination of antibacterial and toxic activities of the fresh leaves of mangrove plants. Mangroves are victim of water pollution from oil spills and herbicides which caused the death of mangroves. People should understand that it must be taken good care because it can help the marine life and the people. Infusion method was employed in the preparation of extractive and was concentrated using a water bath to obtain different extracts. Ampicillin 250-mh vial was used as the positive control and distilled water was the negative control. The antibacterial activity was determined by using Kirby-Bauer Disc Diffusion Method against Escherichia coli and Stahpylococcus aureus. The concentration of the test solutions being used were 100mh/mL, 500mg/mL and 1000mg/mL. After 24 hours of incubation, the zone produced by positive control, negative control and the test solutions were measured and recorded. The toxic activity was determined by Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay using different concentrations of 1mg/mL, 10mg/mL, 30mg/mL and 50 mg/mL. The highest concentration of the different test solutions showed to be toxic to the brine shrimp. Results showed that Rhizophora stylosa 1000mg/mL exhibited the the largest zone of inhibition which showed to have an antibacterial activity. All the solutions of mangrove plants which had 1mg/mL were not toxic. It is highly recommended to isolate and to identify the constituents present in Rhixophora stylosa which contributed its activity. Maceration may be used for the method of extraction for the Avivennia marina and Sonneratia alba where no heat is involved because it could be that the bioactive constituents was destroyed by heat which resulted to no zone of inhibition.

Publication Type
Thesis/Dissertations
Specialization
Pharmacy
Publication Date
March 2009
LocationLocation CodeAvailable FormatAvailability
University of San Carlos - Josef Baumgartner Learning Resource Center, Science and Technology Section T/C47c Abstract Print Format
1. Alongi, D. M., Clough, B. F.. "Nutrient-use efficiency in arid-zone forests of the mangroves Rhizophora stylosa and Avicennia marina" 82(2): 121-131,
2. Bell, J. . "The functional roles of marine sponges" 79(3): 341-353,
3. Carballos, J. L.. "A comparison between two brine shrimp assays to detect in vitro cytotoxicity in marine natural products" 2(17): 1-5,
4. Duke, N. C.. "A systematic revision of the mangrove genus avicennia in Australasia" 4(2): 299-324,
5. Gillikin, D. P.. "Physiological responses of two ecologically important Kenyan mangrove crabs exposed to altered salinity regimes" 301(1): 93-109,
6. Isao, H. , Ikuo, I. . "Journal of experimental marine biology and ecology" 309(2): 141-154,
7. Liao, Y. , Guizhu, C. . "Physiological adaptability of three mangroves species to salt stress" 27(6): 2208-2214,
8. Ng, P. . "A guide to mangroves of Singapore I: the ecosystems and plant diversity" 6(3): 136-137,
9. Thampanya, U. . "Coastal erosion and mangrove progradation of Southern Thailand" 68(1-2): 75-85,
10. Atlas, R. . Microbiology.
11. Bauman, R. , Machunis-Masuoka, E. . Microbiology.
12. Cantoria, M. . Selected topics in pharmacognosy.
13. Todar, K. . Todar.
14. (). . Retrieved from: http://www.turnerdesigns.com
21. (). . Retrieved from: http://www.nhcguides.blogspot.com
26. (). . Retrieved from: http://www.rain-tree.com/premethod.htm
27. (). . Retrieved from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science
30. Chu, I. , Ocampo, A. . The purgative activity of the fresh immature seeds of the philippine Areca catechu linn. (betel nut palm). University of San Carlos, 2003
32. Quimco, C. . Cytotoxic activity of the crude ethanol extracts of fresh leaves of Azadirachta indica linn.. University of San Carlos, 2007

Citation